Posted 05/23/2022 in Diseases and Prevention

Transmission and Prevention of Communicable Diseases

Transmission and Prevention of Communicable Diseases

Communicable disease


How can I tell if someone has an infectious disease?

Contact with blood, bodily fluids or insects can spread an infectious disease.

Reporting cases of infectious disease is essential to evaluate and plant disease prevention and control programs, provide medical treatment and identify common-source epidemics. California law requires all healthcare providers and laboratories to report at least 80 communicable diseases to their local health department.

California Reportable Diseases


What is the spread of infectious diseases?

How it spreads will depend on the agent or disease that caused it. These are just a few of how infectious diseases can spread.

No physical contact is allowed with infected people, including touching (staphylococcus), sexual interactions (gonorrhoea or HIV), and fecal/oral transmitting (hepatitis A), as well as droplets (influenza and TB).

Contact with a contaminated surface or object (Norwalk virus), food E.coli, blood, HIV/hepatitis B, water (cholera),

Bite from insects or animals capable of transmitting the disease (mosquitoes, malaria, yellow fever, fleas; plague);

Fly through the air, such as measles and tuberculosis.


An infectious disease is a disease that spreads from one person to the next. Viruses, bacteria, and fungi can cause these diseases.

This article will describe what infectious diseases are, how to avoid them and their symptoms.



What is a communicable disease?


Communicable diseases can spread when people get close to each other.

A communicable disease is any disease that can be passed between people and animals. Common diseases are often referred to as "infectious" or "transmissible".

Pathogens like bacteria, viruses and mould can cause communicable diseases.

A person can become infected by the pathogen and develop a communicable disease. This could occur via:

  • Contact the infected
  • Contact with contaminated fluids like blood, mucus, or saliva
  • Inhaling dirty drops in the sneeze, cough or mouth of another person
  • Getting bitten by an insect or animal with the disease
  • Consuming dirty water or food

A pathogen will begin replicating once it has entered a person's system. You may feel symptoms.

The infection can cause some symptoms. However, the immune system may also be responsible for some signs.

Most common diseases are mild and resolve in a matter of days. Some may be serious and life-threatening.



Types Of Symptoms

Four major types of pathogens can cause infection. They are bacteria, viruses and fungi.



Genetically modified viruses can be tiny pathogens. They lack the complex structure of cells that makes them unique among other pathogens. To reproduce, they must be allowed into living cells. They can create copies of their cells once inside the cell using the machinery.

One of the viruses is:


Rhinoviruses are a group of viruses known as rhinoviruses that cause the common cold. The following are some ways to identify a cold:

A person can contract a rhinovirus by inhaling the contaminated drops from a cough or sneeze of another person.

The virus can also be transmitted by touching the nose, eyes, or mouth that has touched surfaces or objects contaminated with it.



Influenza viruses are an infection that affects the respiratory system. These symptoms could include:

Influenza viruses are easily caught by everyone in the same way as rhinoviruses.



HIV attacks the immune system of its host. This makes the victim more susceptible to other infections and diseases.

HIV can easily be contracted by anyone who has come into contact with blood or other bodily fluids containing the virus.

HIV symptoms may appear slowly or in stages. These symptoms may include:

An HIV test can be the only way to determine if you have HIV.

HIV treatment is not an effective cure. The virus can be controlled with medications. HIV can also be transmitted to others without treatment.


Bacteria is a microscopic single-celled organism. They are found in almost every environment, including the human body.

While some bacteria can be dangerous, others can help the body function. However, bacteria can cause severe infection and damage to the body.

There are many types of bacterial infections.

Salmonella and Escherichia coli

Salmonella or Escherichia coli can both infect your digestive tract.

They can be spread by contaminated foods such as uncooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables.

These infections may cause symptoms like:



Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection that affects the lungs. Tuberculosis (TB) may cause these symptoms.

Small amounts of aerosols and droplets can spread TB by inhaling. According to the American Lung Association, TB is contagious but can not be easily transmitted.



Fungi are an organism that includes yeasts as well as moulds. Although there are millions of trusted sources of fungi to choose from, only 300 can cause serious illness.

Fungal infections can occur anywhere on the body, but they are most prevalent in the skin and mucus membranes. There are many kinds of fungal infections.


Ringworm is a common fungal infection that affects the skin. A ringworm can be described as a rash that looks similar to a ring. Itchy, dry, and scaly.

People who are close to someone suffering from ringworm may contract it. Ringworm can also be acquired by sharing bedding, towels, or other personal items with someone with the disease.

Ringworm may spread to other areas of your body if not treated.


Foot, an athlete

An athlete's foot is a skin infection that causes an athlete's feet. It can leave you with itchy, white spots between your toes.

The fungus can be transmitted to the athlete's foot by direct contact with someone who has it or with surfaces that have been in close contact.

If someone goes barefoot in the showers, locker rooms or swimming pools, they might develop athlete's feet.


A protagonist is a microscopic organism made up of one cell.

Parasitic parasites can live on or inside another organism and use the nutrients of that organism to sustain their existence. As a result, parasitic parasites may cause various diseases.

Plasmodium protist is responsible for the tropical disease Malaria. Parasites can be transmitted to others by mosquito bites.

Malaria symptoms include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Headaches
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
  • muscle pains

Malaria can lead to death if not treated correctly.

How can you stop transmission?

These steps can help reduce the risk of getting or transmitting disease-causing pathogens.

  • Hand washing and frequently
  • Clean up all surfaces in your house, especially doorknobs.
  • Safe food preparation and handling are possible with good hygiene.
  • Don't eat spoiled food
  • Do not touch wild animals
  • All available vaccines
  • You should take antimalarial medication if you are travelling to areas where malaria may be possible


Some common illnesses have mild symptoms that disappear quickly. Others can cause severe symptoms or life-threatening complications.

It is essential to determine the type of disease to decide on the treatment.

Viral Infections

Vaccines are available to treat specific viral infections.

A vaccine is an inactive or dead version of the virus that someone gets. The immune system makes antibodies that can destroy the active virus in the future.

If a person has already been infected with a virus, antiviral medication may be necessary.

Bacterial Infections

Antibiotics may be required to treat a bacterial infection. These drugs kill bacteria and stop them from reproducing.

Fungal infections

A severe or chronic fungal infection may require over-the-counter or prescription antifungal medications. They can be taken orally as well as topically.